The frontal cortex of the brain helps you recognize what you're tasting when you eat. Humans have nearly 100 kinds of receptors in the palate that communicate to the frontal cortex.
You probably grew up hearing about four tastes: salty, sweet, sour and bitter. A fifth has been discovered. Umami is the taste associated with savory food and is activated by MSG, Worcestershire sauce and soy sauce.
The nose receptors are very developed in humans, even more in mice and dogs. Holding your nose when you eat prevents you from experiencing the full flavor. Your neurons help you recognize and classify food, using memories and associations to classify different foods as tasty or terrible. These memories and associations are strong and will drive you toward (or turn you away) from various foods.
Your tastes may change over time... but not because of molecular changes in the palate. The way you process the information in your cortex changes over time. There are changeable connections between neurons that might be long lasting. If something has an impact on you that you remember, those connections in your brain are strengthened.
Listen in as Dr. Michael Kavanaugh joins Dr. Mike at University of Montana's Innovators and Trailblazers Symposium to discuss the neural reasoning behind food selection.